Review : Loyalties – John Galsworthy.

Hostility toward Jews dates to ancient times, perhaps to the beginning of Jewish history. From the days of the Bible until the Roman Empire, Jews were criticized and sometimes punished for their efforts to remain a separate social and religious group – one that refused to adopt the values and the way of life of the non-Jewish societies in which it lived.

The rise of Christianity greatly increased hatred of Jews. They became seen not merely as outsiders but as a people who rejected Jesus and crucified him – despite the fact that the Roman authorities ordered and carried out the crucifixion. By the high middle ages (11th –14th centuries), Jews were widely persecuted as barely human “Christ-killers” and “Devils.” Forced to live in all-Jewish ghettos, they were accused of poisoning rivers and wells during times of disease. Some were tortured and executed for supposedly abducting and killing Christian children to drink their blood or to use to it in baking matzoh – a charge known as the “blood libel.” A large number were forced to convert to Christianity to avoid death, torture, or expulsion, though many secretly practiced Judaism after their conversions.

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JOHN GALSWORTHY

Writing merely for his own amusement around the age of twenty-eight, John Galsworthy first published a collection of his short stories, From the Four Winds (1897) and the novel Jocelyn (1898) at his own expense and under the fake name of John Sinjohn. After realising that the practice of law was not for him, he published his first novel The Island Pharisees (1904) under his own name, and which in his opinion remained his most important work.

An English novelist and playwright, he won the 1932 Nobel Prize in Literature “for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form inThe Forsyte Saga” published between 1906 and 1921 and as a collection in 1922. The second series of novels in the Forsyte roman fleuve would be The White Monkey(1924), The Silver Spoon (1926), and Swan Song (1928). Maid in Waiting (1931),Flowering Wilderness (1932), and Over the River (1933) comprised the third.

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 SUMMARY

 Loyalties is one of the first plays to deal honestly and openly with the problem of anti-Semitism in aristocratic societies. It portrays how people have their loyalties lying in all the wrong places and follow their loyalties instead of fighting for truth and justice. In the first scene of the play a theft takes place in Meldon Court, owned by Mr. Charles Winsor, where a theft has takes place. Ferdinand De Levis reports the theft of his money to Charles Winsor only to realize that his so called friends are more interested in saving their reputation and name in their society than following the right part to find out the truth. This is proven When Charles Winsor hesitates to get the police involved. As the police finally do get called and an investigation is begun, many theories are put forth to try and find out who was the culprit, and when De Levis comes up with a theory of how Captain Ronald Dancy had stolen the money and backs it up with some proof, he is told to keep these accusations to himself, with the use of social blackmail. De Levis agrees to keep quiet until he can prove himself with further proof, but when he realizes that he has been blackballed out of a club, he openly accuses Dancy of the theft in his fury. After a few days full of discussion on the events that took place between De Levis and Dancy, Dancy is finally proved guilty when the stolen notes are recovered and traced back to him. Dancys friends all advise him to leave the city and run away. The play ends with the tragic death of Dancy when he hangs himself to avoid getting arrested.

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CONCLUSION

In my opinion the whole matter was dealt with very poorly and dishonestly. Having a friends back means walking him through his bad times but also pointing out the right part to him and encouraging him to take it, whereas in this story everyone just tries to cover up each other’s tracks instead of helping out in any way, resulting in a lot of misunderstandings, a web of lies, and unnecessary trouble.

Also, they should have helped out De Levis even if their loyalties lay with Dancy as they all knew and in the end were shown that De Levis was the victim and Dancy was indeed guilty. Even if they were not particularly fond of De Levis and he was not meant to be a part of their circle, they should have at least been nice enough to help him out in getting justice.

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The Ideal Teacher : To sir with Love

I had just been brought face to face with something I had forgotten or completely ignored for more than six exciting years – my black skin . . . disappointment and resentment were a solid bitter this novel is set in the post war time in London. The novel elaborates on the British society’s racism towards dark-skinned people at that time. It tells us the story of Edward Ricardo Braithwaite in a sort of biographical manner in which he shows us through a “negro’s” point of view how challenging it was to get around in those days. the blunt racism that he encounters on  various occasions give us only a taste of what it must have felt like for him, and how he faces them and moves on to living a very satisfying life with a courier  that he enjoys.

“ I turned to look at their pleased and smiling faces and said, with a full heart: “Thank you, all of you.”

Er Braithwaite brings himself into this story as a raf officer who is being demobilized after the war.  He expects to find himself an upper level and respected job his chosen field of engineering.  He applies for many jobs, but was refused all of them due to his dark skin color. The re-realization of the existence of such racism in a country which he served for so long hits him hard. He realizes that his skin color is no longer hidden by the uniform he once wore and was respected because of. After eighteen long months of being unemployed a man vaguely suggests teaching as a profession. Even though er Braithwaite was highly de-motivated and thought that a nation that can’t trust him with tools would never trust him with their children, he finds himself a job at the Greenslade School In the east part of London. Desperate to be employed so that he could feed, shelter and clothe himself he decides to give the job a try as he has nothing to lose.

On joining the school er Braithwaite was assigned one of the schools most unruly and disruptive classes and his image of a proper disciplinary school is fast shattered as he gets a little more involved with lives of the teenagers in his classroom. In the beginning all the children defied his authority and pulled pranks and interrupted his teaching sessions, but after a few incidents due to which er Braithwaite enforced discipline and mannerisms into the classroom the children finally started respecting him as their teacher and accepted his authority over them. He slowly grew very close and turned a bunch of manner -less crude children into a class of respectable presentable young adults who would be ready to face the world once they left the safe walls of their school.

After he achieved their respect he took them to a museum as an outing along with his fellow teacher, and the children really enjoyed themselves. The above quotation was er Braithwaite’s reaction to a bouquet of flowers he found lying on his table from his class’ children in gratitude for taking them to the museum.

THE IDEAL TEACHER.

Nobody can learn how to be an ideal teacher.  The skills needed by the teacher should naturally be present as a part of his/her personality.  The ideal teacher should most importantly like children. Other than this, she should treat every student as an individual should allow the student to have his or her own point of view. The teacher should neither talk too much nor too little but should have his/her own unique way of motivating his/her students to listen to what she is saying. Her class should not be monotonous or boring. An ideal teacher would be able to present the most boring of chapters in an interesting way and catch the student’s attention. The teacher must be fun and have a good sense of humor as it would help making the class more involved and in the end would only strengthen the student-teacher bond. Other than this he /she should be able to communicate clearly and explain the respective subject well. This way the students would realize that the teacher is not only there to fool around but also demands a certain amount of respect.  The teacher should be able to control the class without having to lose his/her temper, as the instructions of such a teacher, with the respect of the children would anyway be followed.

This is my opinion of the ideal teacher. 🙂

“AIR RAID ON PEARL HARBOR X THIS IS NOT DRILL…”

What were the Japanese thinking when they concocted their Pearl Harbor plan? Were they not aware that such an act would ignite outrage in the American people and invite retribution? Had the delivery of the 14-page document to Secretary Hull been on time, would it have mitigated the outcome? Japan eventually paid the dearest price for its conduct.

On December 7, 1941, Japanese planes attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbor,Hawaii Territory, killing more than 2,300 Americans. The U.S.S. Arizona was completely destroyed and the U.S.S. Oklahoma capsized.  A total of twelve ships sank or were beached in the attack and nine additional vessels were damaged. More than 160 aircraft were destroyed and more than 150 others damaged.

A hurried dispatch from the ranking United States naval officer in Pearl Harbor, Commander in Chief Pacific, to all major navy commands and fleet units provided the first official word of the attack at the ill-prepared Pearl Harbor base. It said simply: AIR RAID ON PEARL HARBOR X THIS IS NOT DRILL.

WHAT HAPPENED?

When the first Japanese attack wave arrived over Pearl Harbor seven of their primary targets, the U.S. battleships, were moored along “Battleship Row”, on the eastern side of Ford Island. Another battleship was in drydock in the nearby Navy Yard. Other moorings which the Japanese believed might include battleships, or the equally important aircraft carriers, were at the Navy Yard’s 1010 Dock and along Ford Island’s western side.

The Japanese initially hit airfields, including that on Ford Island. Dive bombers attacked there at about 7:55 AM, destroying many aircraft, among them PBY patrol planes at the island’s southern tip. This attack prompted the dispatch of the famous message “Air raid, Pearl Harbor — this is no drill”, the outside World’s first indication that war had come to the Pacific.

Within a few moments, torpedo planes attacked from east and west, with one of the latter torpedoing the USS Helena at 1010 dock. Others, from the same direction, hit USS Utah and USS Raleigh, off the western side of Ford Island.

The great majority of the torpedo planes came in from the east, flying up the waterway between Pearl Harbor Navy Yard and the Submarine Base to hit the ships on that side of Ford Island. They put two “fish” into USS California, at the southern end of the row. At the northern end, another struck USS Nevada. The outboard ships in the center of “Battleship Row”, USS Oklahoma and West Virginia, each had their port sides torn open by many torpedoes.

As the torpedo planes were completing their work, horizontal bombers swept up “Battleship Row”, dropping armor-piercing bombs. Several ships were hit. One received a death blow, as USS Arizona blew up with a tremendous explosion.

Planes of the second attack wave revisited some of the ships already hit, and also spread destruction in the Navy Yard, where they bombed the drydocked battleship Pennsylvania and three destroyers. Other dive bombers went after the Nevada, which had left her berth and was trying to get to sea. Very heavy anti-aircraft gunfire greeted these aircraft, whose losses were significantly greater than those of the first attack wave.

The raiders had no opportunity to hit American aircraft carriers, all of which were at sea, and did not target fuel storage, most cruisers and destroyers, submarines and most maintenance facilities. However, in just under two hours they had wrecked the U.S. Pacific Fleet’s battleship force, ensuring that it would not interfere with Japan’s plans for conquest.

188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,402 men were killed and 1,282 wounded. The power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded. One Japanese sailor was captured.

WHY DID THE JAPANESE ATTACK PEARL HARBOR?

The road to war between Japan and the United States began in the 1930s when differences over China drove the two nations apart. In 1931 Japan conquered Manchuria, which until then had been part of China. In 1937 Japan began a long and ultimately unsuccessful campaign to conquer the rest of China. In 1940, the Japanese government allied their country with Nazi Germany in the Axis Alliance, and, in the following year, occupied all of Indochina.

The United States, which had important political and economic interests in East Asia, was alarmed by these Japanese moves. The U.S. increased military and financial aid to China, embarked on a program of strengthening its military power in the Pacific, and cut off the shipment of oil and other raw materials to Japan.

Because Japan was poor in natural resources, its government viewed these steps, especially the embargo on oil as a threat to the nation’s survival. Japan’s leaders responded by resolving to seize the resource-rich territories of Southeast Asia, even though that move would certainly result in war with the United States.

The problem with the plan was the danger posed by the U.S. Pacific Fleet based at Pearl Harbor. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese fleet, devised a plan to immobilize the U.S. fleet at the outset of the war with a surprise attack.

The key elements in Yamamoto’s plans were meticulous preparation, the achievement of surprise, and the use of aircraft carriers and naval aviation on an unprecedented scale. In the spring of 1941, Japanese carrier pilots began training in the special tactics called for by the Pearl Harbor attack plan.

In October 1941 the naval general staff gave final approval to Yamamoto’s plan, which called for the formation of an attack force commanded by Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo. It centered around six heavy aircraft carriers accompanied by 24 supporting vessels. A separate group of submarines was to sink any American warships which escaped the Japanese carrier force.

The attacking planes came in two waves; the first hit its target at 7:53 AM, the second at 8:55. By 9:55 it was all over. By 1:00 PM the carriers that launched the planes from 274 miles off the coast of Oahu were heading back to Japan.

WORDS OF THE PRESIDENT.. Franklin Roosevelt.

“It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government had deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American

 lives were lost. In addition American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday the Japanese Government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

                                                                Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Wake Island.

This morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces-with the unbounded determination of our people-we will gain the inevitable triumph-so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, 7 December, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.”

A SURVIVOR’S STORY

The story of D. Weissman, Seaman, First Class is as follows:

I was in the lower handling room of Turret IV. After the first hit, I went to the shell deck. The lights went out and the ship started to turn over. I went to the lower handling room and followed a man with a flash light. I entered the trunk just outside of handling room on the starboard side. The lower handling room flooded completely. Water entered the trunk. I dove and swam to the bottom of the trunk and left the ship through the hatch at the main deck and swam to the surface.

Eleven men in the lower handling room of turret IV escaped through the lucky bag. When the rescue party cut a hole in the lucky bag, the water rose rapidly but all men were removed before the water flooded the lucky bag completely.

Five men were in the five inch twenty-five caliber handling room preparatory to sending up anti-aircraft ammunition. They escaped to the five inch handling room and reduced flooding through ventilation ducts by stuffing rags in the lines. They were eventually saved by the rescue party by way of the shaft alley.

Eight men with water up to their necks were rescued from the steering compartment after these men, who had set condition “Z,” were enabled to enter the steering room through the hole made for them. Three holes were made in all; pumps were in use constantly to keep the level of the water and oil below the danger point.

CONCLUSION

As the shock turned into anger, America’s leaders acted quickly. The day after the attack, before a joint session of Congress, President Roosevelt made his famous speech that labeled December 7 as “a date which will live in infamy.” The Senate voted unanimously for war. The House vote would have been unanimous, too, were it not for one interesting historical footnote: Montana’s Jeannette Rankin (a pacifist) voted against war saying that “she wanted to show that a good democracy does not always vote unanimously for war.” Three days after Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the US, and Congress passed another joint resolution fully involving the US in World War II.

Play Your Part In Saving The Indian Snow Leopard!!

 

These rare, beautiful gray leopards live in the mountains of Central Asia. They are insulated by thick hair, and their wide, fur-covered feet act as natural snowshoes. Snow leopards have powerful legs and are tremendous leapers, able to jump as far as 50 feet (15 meters). They use their long tails for balance and as blankets to cover sensitive body parts against the severe mountain chill.

Snow leopards prey upon the blue sheep (bharal) of Tibet and the Himalaya, as well as the mountain ibex found over most of the rest of their range. Though these powerful predators can kill animals three times their weight, they also eat smaller fare, such as marmots, hares, and game birds.

As these numbers indicate, snow leopards sometimes have a taste for domestic animals, which has led to killings of the big cats by herders.

These endangered cats appear to be in dramatic decline because of such killings, and due to poaching driven by illegal trades in pelts and in body parts used for traditional Chinese medicine. Vanishing habitat and the decline of the cats’ large mammal prey are also contributing factors.

FAST FACTS

Height: About 2 feet (.6m) at shoulders.
Length: 6-7.5 feet (1.8-2.3m) (includes 40-inch (1m) tail length).
Weight: 77-120 lbs (35-55 kg).
Female snow leopards are about 30% smaller than males.
Lifespan: Their reclusive nature makes it hard to determine snow leopard lifespan in the wild. They have, however, been known to live for as long as 21 years in captivity.

Distribution  The strikingly beautiful snow leopard remains one of the most mysterious cats in the world. This roving, high altitude cat is rarely sighted by local people. Because it is so elusive, accurate population numbers are hard to come by, although estimates range from 100 to 200 individuals. Snow leopards live in the mountain regions of central Asia. In India their geographical cover encompasses a large part of the Western Himalaya including the states of Himachal Pradesh, J&K and Uttarakhand with a sizable population in Ladakh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh in Eastern Himalaya in addition to Nepal, Bhutan and parts of China.

Diet

Snow leopards primarily hunt wild sheep and goats. Snow leopards are also known to eat smaller animals like rodents, hares and game birds.

Population

Very rare in most of their range, an estimated 3,500 to 7,000 snow leopards are left in the wild, with 600-700 in zoos around the world. Exact numbers in the wild have not been determined due to the snow leopard’s shy nature.

Habitat 
Snow Leopards prefer steep, rugged terrains with rocky outcrops and ravines. This type of habitat provides good cover and clear view to help them sneak up on their prey. They are found at high elevations of 3000-4500 meters (9800 ft to 14800 ft.), and even higher in the Himalayas. The snowy peaks act as a camouflage for the animal.

Characteristics
Snow Leopards are considered medium-sized cats, standing about 24 inches at the shoulder and weighing around 30-55kg. Their exquisite smoky-gray fur patterned with dark-gray to black rosettes, camouflage them against rocky slopes. Snow Leopards are shy and elusive and inhabit a definite home range. The species usually mate between January and March, a time when both sexes mark intensively, leaving signs such as scrapes,
feces, urine and scent-spray in prominent locations along their travel routes. The animal is most active at dawn and dusk. Like most species of cats, Snow Leopards are solitary animals, though sometimes male and female pairs might be seen together during mating season.

Reproduction
Mating Season:
 Between January and mid-March.
Gestation: period 3-3 ½ months.
Litter size: 2-3 cubs.
Females give birth in rocky dens lined with their fur. The young follow their mother on hunts at three months and remain with her through their first winter.

Conservation Challenges: 

Poaching 


What comes as a major challenge for the protection of this species, is poaching. Snow Leopards are poached illegally for their pelts, which have a huge market in Tibet. Their bones and other body parts are also in huge demand for use in traditional Asian medicines .

Retribution Killings
Due to continuous interference and intrusions by humans and domestic cattle, snow leopards at times stray from their habitat to enter the human territory to prey on domestic livestock. Herders in these areas live a precarious economic life and loss of even a single sheep, causes a real economic hardship. This has caused several cases of retaliatory killing of Snow Leopards in the past .

Habitat and Prey loss
As humans continue to push further into the mountainous areas with their livestock, the Snow Leopards’ habitat is getting boxed-in by increasing human intrusion. As humans push further into the mountainous areas with their livestock, the snow leopard’s habitat is getting degraded and fragmented. Overgrazing has damaged the fragile grasslands, leaving less food for the wild sheep and goats that are the Snow Leopard’s main prey.

Global Warming and Other Threats

Snow leopards are facing a distinct threat from global warming. Their typical habitat range is between where the tree line stops and the snow line begins on the mountains. As global warming warms the earth, snow lines are receding, which means that snow leopards must move further up the mountain slopes as well. As snow leopards get to higher elevations, the vegetation becomes more scarce, which means that the herbivores that they prey on are in limited supply as well, and the leopards are having trouble finding enough food.

Due to the high demand for their coats, snow leopards are also illegally hunted for the fur trade. The pelts are a sought-after commodity in places like Central Asia, Eastern Europe and Russia where they are turned into coats and other garments. Snow leopard bones and body parts are also used for traditional Asian medicine. As humans expand their farm and grazing areas for livestock herds they are encroaching more into the snow leopards territories resulting in increased conflict with humans when snow leopards attack livestock during times when their natural prey is scarce.

Much of the Snow Leopards’ habitat is extremely difficult to access. Found at very high altitude, studying the species and its current status and distribution is an extremely arduous task.

Status: The Snow Leopard is listed as endangered on the IUCN-World Conservation Union’s Red List of the Threatened Species. In addition, the Snow Leopard, like all big cats, is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), which makes trading of animal body parts (i.e., fur, bones and meat) illegal in signatory countries. It is also protected by several national laws in its range country.

WWF’s involvement

Snow leopard is less studied than any other large felid such as tiger, lion and leopard in India. Its currently occupied range is poorly mapped based on the snow leopard’s high and inhospitable terrain. In India snow leopard presence is reported from Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. In India studies had been conducted in some of the protected areas of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh but rest of the states such as Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunchal Pradesh and the unprotected areas of snow leopard distribution range had been still unexplored. Keeping this in view WWF-India initiated this project, “snow leopard conservation: An initiative”, in the states of Uttarakhand (UK) and some of the areas of Himachal Pradesh (HP) which never been explored for snow leopard on a landscape level. Here, we are gathering base-line information such as status and distribution of snow leopard, snow leopard-human conflicts and the biotic pressure on the snow leopard habitats. Hopefully, we will be coming soon with the consolidated list of the promising areas for long-term snow leopard conservation in UK and HP.

Although the Snow Leopard is internationally regarded and legally protected as an endangered species, currently there exist no effective measures to stop poaching and loss of habitat in Jammu & Kashmir. The Snow Leopard population of Jammu & Kashmir has increasingly come under pressure as a result of poaching for furs, loss of habitat caused by deforestation and dam projects, and loss of food sources caused by similar environmental pressures. In both Pakistan and India-administered Jammu & Kashmir, this threat to the Snow Leopard has developed.

The armed conflict of the last 8 years in Jammu & Kashmir has further exacerbated this problem as the soldiers and armed resistance groups have shown little regard for species preservation. The instability has also allowed for an illegal trade of furs. A 1994 raid on a group of traders in Srinagar that hauled more than $1 million worth of furs and  garments made from 1,366 of the world’s most endangered wild cats, tigers, snow and clouded leopards and Bengal tigers indicated that the lack of effective measures to preserve endangered species has deteriorated further as a result of the 8 year old conflict. Cases like these reveal that the poaching of wildlife in Jammu & Kashmir’s forests and in other Himalayan regions has returned with a vengeance that threatens some of the world’s most beautiful and exotic animals after a period of curtailment of such poaching in recent decades. Under this situation, the Snow Leopard is directly threatened.

Reasons For Hope

The snow leopard was placed on the endangered species list in 1972 to help protect its dwindling numbers. Similar to Defenders work with predator species in the United States, conservation groups near snow leopard habitats are working with local farmers and herders to help foster a better understanding of how to co-exist with these animals and minimize conflicts between them.

The farmers are taught how to secure their barns and livestock holding areas against snow leopards and reimbursement programs have been set up to give the farmer fair market value for animals they have lost in return for allowing the snow leopards to live.

Legal Status/Protection

  • Endangered Species Act (ESA): the snow leopard is listed as endangered.
  • IUCN Red List: Endangered. Snow leopards are suspected to have declined by at least 20% over the past two generations (16 years) due to habitat and prey base loss, and poaching and persecution.
  • CITES: The snow leopard is listed in Appendix I.

 DID YOU KNOW?

  • One Indian snow leopard, protected and observed in a national park, is reported to have consumed five blue sheep, nine Tibetan woolly hares, twenty-five marmots, five domestic goats, one domestic sheep, and fifteen birds in a single year
  • Snow leopards have very large paws that act as snowshoes and keep them from sinking into the snow.
  • Their paws are also completely fur-covered, protecting them from the cold.
  • Snow leopards prefer to inhabit steep cliff areas, rocky outcrops and ravines. Such habitats provide them with the camouflage they need to ambush unsuspecting prey. They stalk their prey and usually spring from a distance of 20-50 feet. Their long and powerful hind limbs help the snow leopard leap up to 30 feet, which is 6 times its body length. Mostly active at dawn and dusk, snow leopards are rarely seen in the wild. Unlike other big cats, snow leopards are unable to roar. Solitary in nature, they pair only during the breeding season.
It’s time to play your part in saving these beautiful animals guys!
Boycott and refrain from buying products made out of their fur.
Help in any way you can before the only place we will be able to visit and see these endangered species will be in history textbooks.
Thankyou 🙂 !

India’s Second National Waterway – The Brahmaputra.


From its headsprings in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China (as the Yarlung River), it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges.  Here the river is known as the Dihang. It flows southwest through the Assam Valley and south through Bangladesh (where it is known as the Jamuna) . After receiving the Dibang and Luhit, the Brahmaputra veers southwest-ward and begins a long, sluggish course to the sea through a region rich in rice, sugarcane, and jute.. There it merges with the Ganges (Ganga) to form a vast delta. About 1,800 mi (2,900 km) long, the river is an important source for irrigation and transportation. Its upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Zangbo was established by exploration in 1884–86.  In western Assam the river turns southward into Bangladesh and splits into two branches, chief of which is the Jamuna. Near Dhaka, the Brahmaputra joins the Ganges and Meghna rivers, and their combined waters flow to the Bay of Bengal. The lower Brahmaputra is navigable for more than 800 miles (1,300 km) and is a major means of transport. The river brahmaputra is one of the major river in the world. The total length it travels from Himalayans to the Bay is 2900 Km.

COURSE OF THE RIVER

The Yarlung Tsangpo River, source of the Brahmaputra, originates in the Jima Yangzong glacier near Mount Kailash in the northern Himalayas. It then flows east for about 1,700 kilometres (1,100 mi), at an average height of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft), and is thus the highest of the major rivers in the world. In Tibet, the Tsangpo follows the suture line between the Eurasian Plate and the Indian Plate. At its easternmost point, it bends around Mount Namcha Barwa and forms the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon, which is regarded by some as the deepest in the world.

Assam and adjoining region

The Brahmaputra enters India in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, where it is called Siang. It makes a very rapid descent from its original height in Tibet, and finally appears in the plains, where it is called Dihang. It flows for about 35 kilometres (22 mi) and is joined by the Dibang River and the Lohit River at the head of the Assam Valley. Below the Lohit the river is called Brahmaputra, enters the state of Assam and becomes very wide—as wide as 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in parts of Assam. It is joined in Sonitpur by the Kameng River (or Jia Bhoreli).

Between Dibrugarh and Lakhimpur districts the river divides into two channels—the northern Kherkutia channel and the southern Brahmaputra channel. The two channels join again about 100 kilometres (62 mi) downstream forming the Majuli island, the largest river island in India. At Guwahati, near the ancient pilgrimage center of Hajo, the Brahmaputra cuts through the rocks of the Shillong Plateau, and is at its narrowest at 1 kilometre (1,100 yd) bank-to-bank.

Bangladesh

 In Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra is joined by the Teesta River (or Tista), one of its largest tributaries. Below the Teesta, the Brahmaputra splits into twodistributary branches. The western branch, which contains the majority of the river’s flow, continues due south as the Jamuna (Jomuna) to merge with the lower Ganges, called the Padma River (Pôdda). The eastern branch, formerly the larger but now much smaller, is called the lower or old Brahmaputra (Bromhoputro). It curves southeast to join the Meghna River near Dhaka. The Padma and Meghna converge near Chandpur and flow out into the Bay of Bengal. This final part of the river is called Meghna.

In the past the course of the lower Brahmaputra was different and passed through the Jamalpur and Mymensingh districts. About 250 years ago a major earthquake led to its present flow. The Ganges Delta, fed by the waters of numerous rivers, including the Ganges and Brahmaputra, is 59,570 square kilometres (23,000 sq mi) large, one of the largest river deltas in the world.

BRAHMAPUTRA IN INDIAN MYTHOLOGY.


Brahmaputra means the son of the Hindu Lord ‘Brahma’.
There are many mythological stories on Brahmaputra. But the most popular and sacred one is about the river’s birth in ‘Kalika Purana’. It describes how Parashurama, one of the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu, got rid of his sin of murdering his own mother with an axe (or Parashu) by taking bath in this sacred river. On strict order from his father Yamadagni (who had suspected his wife Renuka of adultery), Parashuram had to murder his own mother by severing her head with an axe. As a result of this nefarious act, the axe got stuck to his hand and he was unable to take it off his hand. On advice from sages, he started on a pilgrimage and ultimately reached the place, which is presently known as Parashuram Kunda (about 25 km north of Tezu in Lohit district in Arunachal Pradesh). The story says that the mighty river was then confined to a Kund (or Kunda) or a small lake surrounded by hills. Parashuram cut down the hills on one side to release the sacred water for the benefit of the common people. By this act, Parashuram’s axe came out of his hand to his great relief and he knew that he had been exonerated from his sin.

HYDROLOGY.

The course of the Brahmaputra has changed continually over time. The most spectacular of these changes was the eastward diversion of the Tista River and the ensuing development of the new channel of the Jamuna, which occurred in 1787 with an exceptionally high flood in the Tista. The waters of the Tista suddenly were diverted eastward into an old abandoned course, causing the river to join the Brahmaputra opposite Bahadurabad Ghat in Mymensingh district. Until the late 18th century the Brahmaputra flowed past the town of Mymensingh and joined the Meghna River near Bhairab Bazar (the path of the present-day Old Brahmaputra channel). At that time a minor stream called the Konai-Jenai—probably a spill channel of the Old Brahmaputra—followed the course of today’s Jamuna River (now the main Brahmaputra channel). After the Tista flood of 1787 reinforced it, the Brahmaputra began to cut a new channel along the Konai-Jenai and gradually converted it after 1810 into the main stream, now known as the Jamuna.

 CLIMATE.

The climate of the Brahmaputra valley varies from the harsh, cold, and dry conditions found in Tibet to the generally hot and humid conditions prevailing in Assam state and in Bangladesh. Tibetan winters are severely cold, with average temperatures below 32 °F (0 °C), while summers are mild and sunny. The river valley lies in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, and precipitation there is relatively light: Lhasa receives about 16 inches (400 mm) annually.

The Indian and Bangladeshi parts of the valley are governed by the monsoon (wet, dry) climate, though it is somewhat modified there compared with other parts of the subcontinent; the hot season is shorter than usual, and the average annual temperature ranges from 79 °F (26 °C) in Dhuburi, India, to 85 °F (29 °C) in Dhaka. Precipitation is relatively heavy, and humidity is high throughout the year. The annual rainfall of between 70 and 150 inches (1,780 and 3,810 mm) falls mostly between June and early October; however, light rains also fall from March to May.

PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE.

Along the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra (Tsangpo) on the high Plateau of Tibet, the vegetation is mainly drought-resistant shrubs and grasses. As the river descends from Tibet, increased precipitation supports the growth of forests. Forests of sal, a valuable timber tree that yields resin, are found in Assam. At even lower elevations, tall reed jungles grow in the swamps and depressed water-filled areas (jheels) of the immense floodplains. Around towns and villages in the Assam Valley, the many fruit trees yield plantains, papayas, mangoes, and jackfruit. Bamboo thickets abound throughout Assam and Bangladesh.

The most notable animal of the swamps in Assam is the one-horned , which has become extinct in other parts of the world; (designated a UNESCO in 1985) provides a refuge for the rhinoceros and for other wildlife in the valley, including elephants, tigers, leopards, wild buffalo, and deer. Numerous varieties of fish include the pabda (Omdok pabda), chital, and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus).

People

The people living in the different sections of the Brahmaputra valley are of diverse origin and culture. North of the Great Himalayas, theTibetans practice Buddhism and speak the Tibetan language. They engage in animal husbandry and cultivate the valley with irrigation water taken from the river.

The ancestry of the Assamese includes both Tibeto-Burman peoples from the surrounding highlands and peoples from the lowlands of India to the south and west. The Assamese language is akin to Bengali, which is spoken in West Bengal state in India and in Bangladesh. Since the late 19th century a vast number of immigrants from the Bengal Plain of Bangladesh have entered Assam, where they have settled to cultivate vacant lands, particularly the low floodplains. In the Bengal Plain itself the river flows through an area that is densely populated by the Bengali people, who cultivate the fertile valley. The hilly margins of the plain are inhabited by the tribal Garo and Hajong of state in India.

Economy

Irrigation and flood control

Flood-control schemes and the building of embankments were initiated after 1954. In Bangladesh the Brahmaputra embankment running west of the Jamuna River from north to south helps to control floods. The Tista Barrage Project is both an irrigation and a flood-protection scheme.

Little power has been harnessed along the Brahmaputra, although the estimated potential is great—some 12,000 megawatts in India alone. Some hydroelectric stations have been completed in Assam, most notably the Kopili Hydel Project, and others are under construction. In the late 1990s a series of major dams were proposed for the Brahmaputra and its tributaries, including the Subansiri, in Arunachal Pradesh.

Navigation and transport

Near Lhazê (Lhatse Dzong) in Tibet, the river becomes navigable for about 400 miles (640 km). Coracles (boats made of hides and bamboo) and large ferries ply its waters at 13,000 feet (4,000 metres) above sea level. The Tsangpo is spanned in several places by suspension bridges.

Because it flows through a region of heavy rainfall in Assam and Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra is more important for inland navigation than for irrigation. The river has long formed a waterway between the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam, although, on occasion, political conflicts have disrupted the movement of traffic through Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra is navigable throughout the Bengal Plain and Assam upstream to , 700 miles (1,100 km) from the sea. In addition to all types of local craft, powered launches and steamers easily travel up and down the river, carrying bulky, timber, etc.

                      

John Mayer’s Top 10

Throughout his career of 12 years, he has sold over 10 million albums in the U.S. and 20 million albums worldwide.

He was (born October 16, 1977) is an American blues, pop and rock musician singer-songwriter, recording artist, and music producer. Born in Bridgeport, Connecticut and raised in Fairfield, Connecticut, he attended Berklee College of Music in Boston. He moved to Atlanta in 1997, where he refined his skills and gained a following, and he now lives in New York City.
We’re all familiar with at least one of his songs. We’ve heard of his name really often.

John. Clayton. Mayer.

His Solo Discography consists of the following albums:
  • Room for Squares (2001)
  • Heavier Things (2003)
  • Continuum (2006)
  • Battle Studies (2009)
  • Born & Raised (2011)
Not only has he gained a huge following through his career, but i feel he has managed to write songs with an admirable and beautiful perfection, which in simple words kind of helps us deal with a lot of situations in life.
Now moving on the the topic of this blog, his top 10 songs.
Well, according to me his top 10 songs in successive order are (I’ve attached a link alongside each one so that you can hear them and give me your opinion on your favorites):
1. Slowdancing in a burning room : http://parrishmiller.com/continuum/John_Mayer-08-Slow_Dancing_In_A_Burning_Room.mp3
2. Gravity : http://parrishmiller.com/continuum/John_Mayer-04-Gravity.mp3
3. Say : http://dc318.4shared.com/img/342520387/804be027/dlink__2Fdownload_2FQjvK0Fc4_3Ftsid_3D00000000-000000-00000000/preview.mp3
4. Free Fallin’ : http://bj0210.edublogs.org/files/2009/08/John-Mayer-Free-Fallin.mp3
5. Perfectly Lonely : http://www.gorirrajoe.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/jm-pl.mp3
6. Why Georgia : http://pds10.egloos.com/pds/200809/26/05/02_-_Why_Georgia.mp3
7. Your Body is a Wonderland : http://www.savannahweddingdesign.com/John%20Mayer%20-%20Your%20Body%20Is%20a%20Wonderland.mp3
8. Who Says : http://images.kerbyte.com/images/2010/11/john_mayer-who_says.mp3
9. Heartbreak Warfare : http://like-neon.com/tr/soundtrack/John_Mayer_-_Heartbreak_Warfare.mp3
10. Neon : http://exploration.typepad.com/Neon.mp3
Other good songs by him are:
– Waiting on the World to Change. : http://www.johntedwards.com/audio/John_Mayer_Waiting_World_Change.mp3
– The Heart of Life. :http://parrishmiller.com/continuum/John_Mayer-05-The_Heart_Of_Life.mp3
– Dreaming with a Broken Heart. : http://parrishmiller.com/continuum/John_Mayer-10-Dreaming_With_A_Broken_Heart.mp3